What is the electron spin?
The electron spin is the electronís
electromagnetic field angular momentum


Nuclear Cubic Structure

 

In 1891, the Irish physicist, George Stoney, believed that electricity should have a fundamental unit. He called this unit the electron.
The electron was discovered by J.J. Thomson in 1897.
The electron was the first sub-atomic particle ever found. It was also the first fundamental particle discovered.

As is commonly known, the hydrogen atom is the smallest atom that exists in nature. The mass ratio between an electron and a hydrogen atom is approximately 1:1836. From this numerical comparison, it is evident that the mass of an electron is much smaller than that of a hydrogen atom.

Besides its electric charge and mass, an electron has one more key property, which is called ďelectron spin.?Just as the earth rotates around its axis, the electron is also constantly ďspinning.?

The concept of electron spin was discovered by S.A. Goudsmit and George Uhlenbeck in 1925.

The electron has three basic properties: electric charge, mass and spin.

As far as we can understand, electron spin is the electronís intrinsic angular momentum.

As far as we can tell, the electron is still regarded as a point like particle, with no internal structure and no physical size.

How can a point particle, without any physical size, spin and have intrinsic angular momentum?

The spinning of the point particle is meaningless. What matters is where the intrinsic angular momentum originates from inside the electron.

There are many people who believe that an electronís mass may have an electromagnetic origin. Is there a possibility then that the electron spin also has an electromagnetic origin?

The book ďWhat Is the Electron Spin? tries to answer this question. This book is based on the assumption that the electron spin has an electromagnetic origin. That is, the electronís intrinsic angular momentum results from an electromagnetic field.
The electron is a unit with a single electrical charge and has an intrinsic electric field.

Because the electron has an intrinsic angular momentum, we know that the electron must have an intrinsic magnetic field. Similar to a magnetic dipole field, the electron is natureís smallest magnet.

As is commonly known, the electromagnetic field can have energy and momentum as well as angular momentum.

ďWhat Is the Electron Spin??makes a basic assumption that the electron itself has an electromagnetic origin. It then extends that theory to all of the electronís properties, such as mass and spin, claiming they have an electromagnetic origin as well. For example, an electronís self-energy comes from its electromagnetic field energy, and the electron spin is the angular momentum of the electronís electromagnetic field.

The first point this book attempts to make is that the electron is no longer regarded as a point particle. Rather, it purports that there is a continuum spherical distribution of both electric and magnetic charges inside the electron.

Chapter 1 is an introduction to the book and illustrates a simple electron spin model.

Chapter 2 introduces a single mathematical equation to describe how the electric charge is distributed inside the electron.

Chapter 3 introduces another mathematical equation, this one describing how the magnetic charge is distributed inside the electron.

Expanding upon the principles outlined in Chapters 2 and 3, Chapters 4 and 5 provide a solution to the electric and magnetic field distribution equations inside the electron.

Chapter 6 sets forth the notion that electron spin is the angular momentum of the electronís electromagnetic field.

Chapters 7 through 9 explain the theory that the electronís self-energy comes from its electromagnetic field energy.

Chapters 10 through 15 discuss the conservation laws surrounding electric charges, magnetic charges and electromagnetic energy.

Chapters 16 through 19 extend the electronís electromagnetic model to that of the proton, the neutron and hydrogen and helium atoms. Within these chapters, the book goes on to make the claim that itís not only an electron that has an electromagnetic origin, but all of the fundamental particles as well.

Chapters 20 through 23 of this book discuss the electromagnetic wave inside the electron. They also provide a possible solution to the hydrogen atom spectrum, setting it forth as a hydrogen atom electromagnetic stationary wave spectrum.

The last chapter, Chapter 24, discusses the symmetrical relationship between time-space and energy-momentum.

 

Here are some key conclusions that can be drawn from this book:

 

  • Electrons have an electromagnetic origin.
  • Electron spin is the electromagnetic fieldís angular momentum.
  • An electronís self-energy is a result of the electromagnetic field energy.
  • An electronís magnetic field is similar to that of a magnetic dipole field, where the north pole is a single unit with a negative magnetic charge and the south pole is a single unit with a positive magnetic charge.
  • Multiples of the electric charge unit e and the magnetic unit g equals Planckís constant h
  • Protons and neutrons have an electromagnetic origin.
  • All materials have an electromagnetic origin

Book's back cover:

  • The electron has both intrinsic electric field and intrinsic magnetic field.
  • The electronís intrinsic electromagnetic field has both energy and angular momentum.
  • The electron spin is the electronís electromagnetic field angular momentum.
  • The electronís self-energy is the electronís electromagnetic field energy.
  • The electron has electromagnetic origin.
  • The electron is the smallest magnet, oriented in the same direction that the electron is spinning.
  • The electronís south pole has one unit positive magnetic charge g, the north pole has one unit negative magnetic charge Ėg
  • The multiple of electric charge unit e and magnetic charge unit g equals Planckís constant h
  • Both the electronís electric charge and magnetic charge have the continuum spherical distribution inside the electron.
  • The electron as whole has one unit negative electric charge e
  • The electron as whole has zero magnetic charge.
  • All the particles that make up physical materials include electrons, protons and neutrons have electromagnetic origin. Thus all materials have electromagnetic origin.


Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. The electric charge distribution inside of the electron

3. The magnetic charge distribution inside of the electron


4. The electric field inside of the electron

5. The magnetic field inside of the electron

6. The electromagnetic field angular momentum of the electron

7. The electric field energy of the electron

8. The magnetic field energy of the electron

9. The electromagnetic field energy of the electron

10. The velocity of the electromagnetic field

11. The conservation of electric charge

12. The conservation of magnetic charge

13. The electromagnetic field equation

14. The electromagnetic field equation in complex form

15. The conservation of energy

16. The electromagnetic model of the proton


17.The electromagnetic model of the hydrogen atom


18. The electromagnetic model of the neutron

19. The electromagnetic model of helium atom

20. The e
lectromagnetic characteristic impedance

21. The e
lectromagnetic wave

22. The electron impedance


23. The hydrogen atom spectrum


24. Time-space and energy-momentum

Appendix
Appendix-A
Appendix-B
Appendix-C
Appendix-D
Appendix-E


 




What is the electron spin?
ISBN 0974397490
Copyright ?2003
Gengyun Li
All rights reserved
http://www.electronspin.org